Analysis of wastewater hydroponic phytoremediation of Ipomoea aquatica (Water spinach) as a hyperaccumulation of copper (cu) and iron (Fe)

Date of Completion


Document Type


Degree Name

Grade 12


Hydroponics, wastewater, Water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica, Phytoremediation, Hyperaccumulate, Heavy Metals


In this study, Ipomoea aquatica was tested on their ability to hyperaccumulate two of the abundant heavy metals found in pure laundry water, which are Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) according to Baraga & Verasche (2014). The experiment was done in a hydroponic set-up at a laundry shop (Washden) located in Noveleta, Cavite. Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), plant parts from water spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) such as root, shoots, and leaves were collected from the hydroponic set-up have been tested for Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) uptake. In determining the plant’s Copper and Iron concentration, they have used the method of comparative analysis in terms of its Biological Accumulation Factor (BAF) and its Translocation Factor (TF). These factors, together with the AAS analysis of the aforementioned plant biomass, were used in detecting possible signs of a significant difference between the heavy metal concentration in both set-ups and to determine what is more of an efficient hyperaccumulator. Water spinach is frequently consumed without any knowledge about its heavy metal concentration. In line with this, water spinach’s edibility was also determined by comparing the permissible heavy metal contamination given by the FAO/WHO and the detected heavy metal level of concentration in water spinach plants which grew from a hydroponic waste environment. The Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) content in terms of roots, shoots, and leaves indicated that Copper has a lower concentration compared to Iron. The raw data also signified that the Iron content in the water spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) has surpassed the permissible limit given by the FAO/WHO Therefore, it is considered to be harmful and risky when ingested by humans and animals. For the safety of the residents, it is recommended that they do not consume the aforementioned plants grown from wastewater particularly laundry water due to high iron (Fe) content levels. Moreover, it is also recommended for future researchers to perform further research and analysis of heavy metal uptakes in other kinds of wastewater.

First Advisor

James P. Rapanut

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