Date of Completion


Document Type

Research Project

Degree Name

Grade 12


Chitala ornata, Candida albicans, fish epidermal mucus, Fluconazole, Kirby-Bauer test, and zone of inhibition (ZOI)


Chitala ornata, commonly known as Clown Knife Fish or just Knife Fish, is considered an invasive fish species in the Philippines which is most prevalent in Laguna de Bay. C. ornata feed on smaller fish such as Tilapia and Bangus. The ‘slime’ or technically known as a fish’s epidermal mucus, functions as the organism’s primary defense against pathogens. The epidermal mucus of bony fishes such as Tilapia, have been studied to have antibacterial properties against bacteria such as E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, P. aeruginosa, and fungi such as C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. This paper evaluates the antifungal property of Chitala ornata epidermal mucus against Candida albicans. This study aims to establish a niche for C. ornata to reduce their negative effects on the ecosystem. C. ornata’s epidermal mucus was tested against Candida albicans, a model microorganism for susceptibility testing for fungi. Using the Kirby-Bauer test, it was determined that C. ornata’s pure epidermal mucus’ zone of inhibition (ZOI) yielded to none which can imply that C. ornata’s epidermal mucus does not possess antifungal properties.

First Advisor

Ramgie M. Bartolata