Date of Completion


Document Type

Research Project

Degree Name

Grade 12


Family functioning, COVID-19 pandemic, Family income, Low income, Middle income, High income


The expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic to different parts of the world, including the Philippines, developed distress among individuals and hindered their proper functioning in a household. It also caused a shock to families due to the risk of unemployment and death, subjecting them to high levels of emotional and psychological stress during the pandemic. Hence, this research sought to compare and determine the significant difference between family functioning of SHS students who have low, middle, and high family income during the COVID-19 pandemic. This comparative descriptive study was conducted through purposive sampling among SHS students in Cavite during the school year 2021-2022. Datawere gathered through a questionnaire which includes the sociodemographic profile of the respondents and the adapted McMaster FAD questionnaire. A One-Way Analysis of Variance and Tukey post hoc were utilized in statistical treatment to determine the significant difference in family functioning among middle- and high-income families. The findings revealed a significant difference in the respondents' family functioning across domains such as problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness and affective involvement. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that people from middle and high-income families function better as a family than those from low-income families. Based on the findings, there is a significant difference in the family functioning in the low-income families and the middle and high-income families. This research may possibly contribute to the studies related to the pandemic and other factors that are possibly affected by the pandemic. Importantly, it can raise awareness of the varying circumstances that families are subjected in, due to the amount of their earning at the time of the COVID19 pandemic.

First Advisor

Carmelette C. Davila