Updated considerations in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis infection and disease: integrating the latest evidence-based strategies

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Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious cause of global morbidity and mortality, affecting nearly a quarter of the human population and accounting for over 10 million deaths each year. Over the past several decades, TB incidence and mortality have gradually declined, but 2021 marked a threatening reversal of this trend highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of all forms of TB.

Areas Covered: This review summarizes advances in TB diagnostics, addresses the treatment of people with TB infection and TB disease including recent evidence for treatment regimens for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and draws attention to special considerations in children and during pregnancy.

Expert Opinion: Improvements in diagnosis and management of TB have expanded the available options for TB control. Molecular testing has enhanced the detection of TB disease, but better diagnostics are still needed, particularly for certain populations such as children. Novel treatment regimens have shortened treatment and improved outcomes for people with TB. However, important questions remain regarding the optimal management of TB. Work must continue to ensure the potential of the latest developments is realized for all people affected by TB.

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