Glycomic, Glycoproteomic, and Proteomic Profiling of Philippine Lung Cancer and Peritumoral Tissues: Case Series Study of Patients Stages I–III

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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounting for majority of lung cancers. Thus, it is important to find potential biomarkers, such as glycans and glycoproteins, which can be used as diagnostic tools against NSCLC. Here, the N-glycome, proteome, and N-glycosylation distribution maps of tumor and peritumoral tissues of Filipino lung cancer patients (n = 5) were characterized. We present several case studies with varying stages of cancer development (I−III), mutation status (EGFR, ALK), and biomarker expression based on a three-gene panel (CD133, KRT19, and MUC1). Although the profiles of each patient were unique, specific trends arose that correlated with the role of aberrant glycosylation in cancer progression. Specifically, we observed a general increase in the relative abundance of high-mannose and sialofucosylated N-glycans in tumor samples. Analysis of the glycan distribution per glycosite revealed that these sialofucosylated N-glycans were specifically attached to glycoproteins involved in key cellular processes, including metabolism, cell adhesion, and regulatory pathways. Protein expression profiles showed significant enrichment of dysregulated proteins involved in metabolism, adhesion, cell−ECM interactions, and N-linked glycosylation, supporting the protein glycosylation results. The present case series study provides the first demonstration of a multi-platform mass-spectrometric analysis specifically for Filipino lung cancer patients.