Delamanid Added to an Optimized Background Regimen in Children with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Results of a Phase I/II Clinical Trial

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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy


Delamanid has been demonstrated to be safe and effective for treatment of adult multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and has been approved by the European Commission for treatment of pediatric MDR-TB patients at least 10 kg in weight, making the drug no longer limited to adults. A 10-day phase I age deescalation study was conducted, followed by a 6-month phase II extension study, to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of delamanid when combined with optimized background regimen (OBR) in children (birth to 17 years) with MDR-TB. Delamanid administered at 100 mg twicedaily (BID), 50 mg BID, and 25 mg BID resulted in exposures in 12- to 17- (n = 7), 6- to 11- (n = 6), and 3- to 5-year-olds (n = 12), respectively, comparable with those in adults at the approved adult dosage (100 mg BID). Exposures in 0- to 2-yearolds (n = 12) following a weight-based dosing regimen (5 mg once daily [QD] to 10 mg BID) were lower than predicted from pharmacokinetic modeling of the older three age groups and below target exposures in adults. Overall, the safety profile of delamanid in children 0 to 17 years of age was similar to the adult profile. At 24 months after the first delamanid dose, 33/37 children (89.2%) had favorable treatment outcomes, as defined by the World Health Organization (15/37 [40.5%] cured and 18/37 [48.6%] completed treatment). A new pediatric delamanid formulation used in 0- to 2- year-olds and 3- to 5-year-olds was palatable per child/parent and nurse/investigator reports. Data from initial phase I/II studies inform our understanding of delamanid use in children and support its further assessment in the setting of pediatric MDR-TB.