The link between pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (Osa) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd)

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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing that affects up to 9.5% of the pediatric population. Untreated OSA is associated with several complications, including neurobehavioral sequelae, growth and developmental delay, cardiovascular dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the neurobehavioral sequelae associated with OSA. This review aims to summarize the research on the relationship between OSA and ADHD and investigate the impacts of OSA treatment on ADHD symptoms. A literature search was conducted on electronic databases with the key terms: “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” or “ADHD”, “obstructive sleep apnea” or “OSA”, “sleep disordered breathing”, and “pediatric” or “children”. Review of relevant studies showed adenotonsillectomy to be effective in the short-term treatment of ADHD symptoms. The success of other treatment options, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in treating ADHD symptoms in pediatric OSA patients has not been adequately evaluated. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term benefits of surgical intervention, patient factors that may influence treatment success, and the potential benefits of other OSA treatment methods for pediatric ADHD patients.

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