Date of Completion


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy


Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs, Determinants, Perceived Effectiveness, Andersen Model, Self-medication, COVID-19


Background: The increasing trend of self-medication practices in the Philippines to address COVID-19 symptoms poses numerous risks. This study aimed at determining the factors affecting self-medication practices through the modified Andersen model of health service utilization, and their associated perceived effectiveness in preventing or treating COVID-19 symptoms among adults in Cavite.

Methodology: A cross-sectional survey through self-administered questionnaire was utilized in this study between April and May 2022. Descriptive statistics through counts and percentages, and inferential analyses through a chi-square test were employed.

Results: Out of the 385 respondents enrolled in this study, most reported having experienced fever (61.8%) and body ache (52.7%). Minor symptoms and ease of treatment was the top reason for self-medicating, whereas fear of worsening the condition (12.7%) was the top reason against the said practice. Level of knowledge was found to be statistically associated with self-medication (p = .047). A total of 77.4% of respondents performed self-medication with paracetamol (60.8%), nasal decongestants (39.5%), and cough medicines (35.1%) being the most frequently self-medicated drugs while vitamins and supplements (67.5%), steam therapy (41.8%), and gargling with salt and warm water (29.1%) being the most frequently self-medicated CAMs. Contrary to other published results of the high prevalence of Ivermectin use for COVID-19 of 80%, only 1.6% occurrence was found. Several significant associations with the types of SMPs (both CAMs and drugs) were found with the predisposing and need factors. All drug products except Ivermectin, and all CAMs were significantly associated with perceived effectiveness.

Conclusion: The principal findings substantiated the mediating role of knowledge about self-medication and COVID-19 symptoms between the demographics and self-medication practices (SMP), whereas among the need factors, only throat pain, dry cough and body ache are statistically associated with SMP (p= 0.038; p=0.025; p=0.041). As such, the researchers suggest the implementation of educational campaigns by creating health promotional materials to emphasize the determined key messages regarding self-medication practices.

First Advisor

Francesca Marie B. Manansala