Determination of antiarrhythmic effects of the combination of L-ascorbic acid and verapamil (Isoptin®) on calcim-induced tachycardia in bullfrog (hoplobatrachus rugulosus) using kymograph (Orchid®)

Date of Completion


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy


antiarrhythmic, kymograph, Tachycardia, L-ascorbic acid, verapamil, Isoptin


Tachycardia was successfully induced in the bullfrog hearts using intracardiac administration of CaCl2. There was an observed decrease of 40.3% in the average cycle length (CL) between the negative control group and the CaCl2 group. This difference proved that the exposure of the bullfrog heart to 0.5 M CaCl2 was successful in inducing tachycardia in bullfrogs. The resulting action potentials were recorded using the kymography set-up introduced in this research. Acton potentials obtained from bullfrogs under sham control group (surgery-only group) denoted that the surgery did not cause tachycardia. The action potentials obtained from the negative control group were compared with those from the calcium chloride group. Administration of ascorbic acid with verapamil alone. This clearly indicate that intracardiac administration of ascorbic acid can potentiate the antiarrhythmic effects of verapamil.

First Advisor

Timothy Jay L. Bengala, RPh

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