Effects of Helfer skin tap technique on the level of pain experienced by infants during intramuscular injection

Date of Completion


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Nursing


Injections, Intramuscular, Infant, Pain


This study utilized a non-equivalent group, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Using purposive non-probability sampling, 30 respondents were chosen and divided into comparison and intervention groups, each with 15 respondents. The research tool used was the Neonatal/Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) which assesses six (6) behavioral categories such as the facial expression, cry, breathing pattern, state of arousal and the arm and leg movement of the infant. This tool was adapted from the University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority (2014) and its interpretation was loosely based on the study conducted by Taparan-Lumabi (2007), "Effects of oral stimulation on the level of newborn babies pain perception during intramuscular injection," which also used the NIPS but with a slight modification. Percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test were used in statistical analysis. The study found out that, 1) Most of the infants were female; 2) Both the intervention and comparison groups experienced pain. However, the infants of the intervention group experienced less pain described as moderate with the application of the Helfer skin tap technique as compared to the comparison group who felt severe pain; 3) The application of Helfer skin tap technique is an effective comfort measure to decrease the level of pain experienced by infants during intramuscular injection.

First Advisor

Nancy D. De Los Santos

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