Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogels reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from Moringa oleifera (Malunggay) stalks for drug delive

Date of Completion


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Degree Name

Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry


Drug Delivery Systems.


An effective drug delivery system (DDS) is desirable nowadays since it will have a higher bioavailability and one of the most promising drug delivery system is hydrogels. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based reinforced with varying amoung of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from Moringa oleifera (Malanggay) stalks were synthesized using Fe3+ as crosslinker and was utilized in developing drug delivery system, with crystal violet (CV) as the model drug. FT-IR analysis showed the blending of CNC in the hydrogel matrix as indicated by the broadening of -OH stretch at around 3400 cm -1. In addition, the beads were determined to have a diameter, d = 4.4794 mm ± 0.3067. Different concentrations (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% w/w) of CNC were used to determine its effect in the mechanical properties of the beads as well as its swelling behavior. SEM showed that the surface morphology of neat hydrogels is smooth attributing to the stiffness of its structure, while CNC-CMC lend beads exhibited a unique undulation pattern. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) identified the water loss in neat CMC at 155.76°C, and its partial degradtion at 174.25°C. On the other hand, swelling behavior of the hydrogels showed an excellent pH sensitivity. Maximum swelling was noted at pH 13 in 15% CNC-CMC blend hydrogels with a percent swelling ration, %SR=2519± 191. Furthermore, maximum drug loading activity was also observed with 15% CNC, CNC-CMC blend hydrogel showed the highest percent drug release at pH 7.4 (8.75% (±0.16) after 24 hours, while at pH 2, hydrogels with 5% CNC had the second highest release activity next to neat hydrogels with a values of 4.96%, making the 5% CNC-CMC blend hydrogels the best candidate for controlled drug delivery systems. The produced hydrogels can be a possible drug carrier for CV-like drug molecules.

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